The concept of CBT in Islam, in my experience and reflections can be summarized in one simple ayah:
قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ
The desert Arabs say, “We believe.” say, “you didn’t believe (yet) ; but instead say, ‘We have become muslim,’ because Iman hasn’t entered your hearts yet. Surah 49
We need to believe the correct things about ourselves. We may logically acknowledge things that are correct, but we often feel otherwise. This phenomenon is when we logically understand something, but emotionally don’t understand. It is when the beliefs and ideas haven’t penetrated the heart. Once a proper belief enters the heart, then and only then you start to feel the emotions of that belief. And this you could say is the goal of CBT, even though CBT doesn’t generally recognise the heart as the location of beliefs and emotions.
Theories are good, but implementation is better. May Allah help us to enter iman and healthy beliefs into our hearts. Ameen.